Biomechanical assessment of the connection between risk of wrist fracture and the dumbbell chest press exercise performed on an exercise ball.

Category: Publication

Author: Desmoulin G.T. and Rabinoff M.

Publication: Int. J. Forensic Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2015.

Multiple incidents of exercise balls bursting during a dumbbell chest press have been reported. This study quantified the dynamics of the dumbbell chest press performed on such balls and the force applied throughout the exercise cycle. To do so, a well-documented case was replicated using subjects of similar weight, background and athletic ability in the same dumbbell chest press motion. Subjects were instructed to perform repetitions on the exercise balls at both a self-selected pace and at maximal speed using various masses. Dynamic measurements were made to record ball loading, ball loading rate, ball compression, and kinematics of the subjects. Peak loads averaged 2084 N in the case of fast trials and 1815 N for self-selected speed trials. Biomechanical aspects of injury causation and the safe use of exercise balls are discussed throughout the products life cycle; from design and manufacturing to the conditioning professional and athlete end user.

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Non-invasive method of spinal intervention and use of devices effective for spinal intervention

Category: Publication

Authors: Aslam Khan, Geoffrey T Desmoulin, Christopher J Hunter

Publication: US Patent Office

The present technology is the use of the combination to treat a patient and the treatment of a patient. Sine waves are generated digitally by the combination. Data validation is used to ensure correct directional alignment prior to device activation. Patient safety and consistency in treatment protocols are considered in the spinal and upper cervical impulse treatment design. A patient is treated with smooth sinusoidal waveform with a force of about 8 N to about 12.2 N with a Z-axis of acceleration (shear acceleration) of about 0.5 g to about 5g at about 5 Hertz (Hz) to about 200 Hertz. Treatment conditions can be varied depending upon the size of the patient, which includes human and veterinary patients. The method is non-invasive.

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A Biomechanical Method for Reconstruction of Tumbling Trampoline Associated

Category: Publication

Author: Desmoulin G.T., Rabinoff M., Stolz B., and Gilbert M.

Publication: J of Forensic Biomechanics, 2014, 5(1): 101-7.

Rebound devices such as trampolines are associated with catastrophic spinal cord injuries. Cadaveric studies have reported thresholds for injuries that can be applied to the case of failed acrobatics such as backward somersaults. However, it remains unclear whether falls on rebound surfaces should be expected to cause neurological injuries in the majority of cases or only in unfortunate exceptions. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the risk of injury associated with a failed backflip performed on a rebound device such as a trampoline or tumbling trampoline.

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Tissue Injury and Effects of Applied Vibration on the Intervertebral Disc

Category: Publication

Author: Geoffrey Desmoulin

Publication: University of Calgary

It is thought that disc degeneration can cause spine related pain. New treatments acting at cellular levels in the intervertebral discs (IVD) may offer potential to improve long-term disc health. Hence, optimized loading that induces positive cellular changes in the disc may improve disc health delaying the onset of degeneration, thus delaying the onset of pain. This dissertation evaluates and improves a vibration based spinal intervention called the Khan Kinetic Treatment (KKT) while describing some of its mechanisms of treatment of the intervertebral disc. Objectives of this study are to: 1) test effects of vibration on disc biosynthesis prior to device modifications (KKT_v1); 2) determine vibration conditions that are most effective in positively altering IVD gene expression; 3) implement findings from objective 2 by modifying the spinal intervention (KKT_v2) and repeating tests; and 4) design, build, validate, and experiment with a novel bioreactor so that other tissues may be targeted. It could be concluded that the un-modified interventions (KKT_v1) vibration loading profile did not fall within the influential range that affects the cells of the bovine IVD. Objective 2 results showed that expression of certain extracellular matrix genes were significantly up regulated with specific vibration loading patterns, indicating a potential therapeutic stimulus (10 min. total duration of an equal mix of 16 Hz and a 50-80 Hz frequency sweep at a minimum of 0.4 g amplitude). Objective 3 had KKT_v1’s firmware edited to drive the new frequencies found to be most effective in objective 2 making KKT_v2; results of objective 3 showed that expression of certain extracellular matrix genes were significantly up regulated when vibrated with the modified intervention (KKT_v2) indicating a potential therapeutic stimulus of the intervention itself. Objective 4 results confirmed the positive influence of mRNA expression with the new bioreactor by utilizing the optimal vibration patterns identified in objective 2. iv This research has moved past the proof of concept stage as it has been shown that specific vibration conditions (10 min, 16 & 50-80 Hz, 0.4g) can influence the expression of cell genes in the IVD. The novel bioreactor built as a result of chapter 4 allows us to test other tissues, while mimicking in-vivo conditions. This information could be used to construct future experiments in protein expression or in-vivo MRI studies of human IVD.

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Multi-unit sustained vibration loading platform for biological tissues: design, validation and experimentation

Category: Publication

Authors: Geoffrey T Desmoulin, William S Enns-Bray, Carol R Hewitt, Christopher J Hunter

Publication: Journal of biomechanics

The relationships between mechanical inputs and resulting biological tissue structure, composition, and metabolism are critical to detailing the nuances of tissue mechanobiology in both healthy and injured tissues. Developing a model system to test the mechanobiology of tissues ex-vivo is a complex task, as controlling chemical and mechanical boundary layers in-vitro are difficult to replicate. A novel multi-unit vibration loading platform for intervertebral discs was designed and validated with both independent electronic data and experimental loading of 6 bovine intervertebral discs (IVDs) and an equal number of unloaded controls. Sustained vibration was applied using closed-loop positional control of pushrods within four independent bioreactors with circulating phosphate buffered saline. The bioreactors were designed to be modular with removable components allowing for easy cleaning and replacement. The loading regime was chosen to maximize target mRNA expression as reported in previous research. Aggrecan, decorin, and versican mRNA all reported statistically significant increases above control levels. Biglycan, collagen type I and II showed no significant difference from the control group. Further study is required to determine the resulting effect of increased mRNA expressions on long-term disc health. However these results indicate that this research is past the proof of concept stage, supporting future studies of mechanobiology utilizing this new device. The next stage in developing this novel loading platform should consider modifying the tissue grips to explore the effects of different directional loading on different gene expression, and also loading different types of tissues

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Noninvasive Intervention Corrects Biomechanics and Upregulates Disk Genes for Long-Term Spinal Health

Category: Publication

Authors: GT Desmoulin, C J. Hunter, C R. Hewitt, N Bogduk, O S. Al-Ameri

Publication: Global Spine Journal, Volume 2, Issue 1_suppl, Pages s-0032-1319852-s-0032-1319852

Studies examining associations between back pain and degenerated intervertebral disks (IVDs) produced evidence implicating IVDs as a significant factor in chronic back pain. Traditionally, treatment is focused on symptoms instead of at the root of discogenic back pain, the disk itself. Further, invasive treatments range from use of strong medications to surgery, which can have poor outcomes and problematic side effects. There is now a noninvasive intervention capable of correcting spinal biomechanics and has been “tuned” to upregulate the expression of IVD genes responsible for producing matrix proteins in hopes of therapeutically addressing discogenic back pain at its root. The intervention is called KKT and is based on the application of specific vibration to the spine for ∼10 minutes per treatment, 2 to 3 per week, for about 6 weeks before re-evaluation. This abstract summarizes KKT safety and efficacy tests performed thus far.

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Blast Mitigation Status of Police Crowd Management Ensembles

Category: Publication

Author: Desmoulin, G. T., Dionne, J.P.

Publication: White Paper, 2012.

Between 1992 and 2002, more U.S. citizens were wounded or killed from explosives within U.S. borders than all of the international terrorist incidents that occurred during this same time. Yet, according to some researchers, the U.S. healthcare system still considers terrorism an international affair and therefore lacks the knowledge of the public health impact after bombings. Kapur in 2005 and more recently Lerner (2007) published articles outlining the need for non-military terrorism preparedness and the resulting disaster response of civilian factions. These research groups state that criminal bombings utilizing homemade materials occur daily, nearly 5 times a day on average in the U.S.. Although the events of September 11, 2001 have significantly raised awareness of the management of blast injuries in the civilian healthcare community, these research groups still stress that additional explosion specific mass-casualty incidents should be prepared for by civilian disaster management teams, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, and critical care/burn specialists.

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Spinal Intervention Efficacy on Correcting Cervical Vertebral Axes of Rotation and the Resulting Improvements in Pain, Disability and Psychsocial Measures

Category: Publication

Author: Desmoulin G. T., Szostek J. S., Khan A. H., Al-Ameri O. S., Hunter C. J., Bogduk N.

Publication: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 2012, 20(1): 31-40.

Mean axes of rotation [MAR] of cervical joints are an effective measure of spine pathology. Khan Kinetic Treatment [KKT] is known to relieve symptoms, but its biomechanical effects have not been quantified. This study assesses KKT efficacy using MAR correction and its associated effects.

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Effectiveness of Slow Rate Practice Techniques

Category: Publication

Author: Desmoulin G. T., and Larkin T.

Publication: White Paper, 2012.

The purpose of this paper is for GTD Engineering’s Geoff Desmoulin (GTD) to give scientific insight into slow movement training techniques developed and tested by Target Focus Training’s (TFT) Tim Larkin. In doing so GTD helps validate, continually improves, and, further develops the scientific basis of TFT training methodology. It is understood that while this work has scientific merit it was not the purpose to have this work accepted by a scientific peer-review publication nor has it been submitted anywhere on that behalf.

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A portable inertial sensing-based spinal motion measurement system for low back pain assessment

Category: Publication

Authors: Jung Keun Lee, Geoffrey T Desmoulin, Aslam H Khan, Edward J Park

Publication: IEEE, Pages 4737-4740

Spinal motion measurement during dynamic conditions may help identify differences between individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of an inertial sensing based, portable spinal motion measurement system for investigating the differences of the spinal motions between an LBP group and a healthy control group. During a fast flexion/extension test, we measured 3D angular motions of the pelvis, lumbar spine and thoracic spine of the two groups using the inertial sensing based system. Range of motions (ROM) and peak angular velocities were investigated to determine which variables have significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.05). Also, a logistic regression analysis was carried out to see the classifying ability of the LBP patients from controls using the proposed system. The result shows that LBP was particularly associated with significant decreases in peak velocities of the lumbar spinal extension motion, having the maximum 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity in the classification according to the regression analysis. The result demonstrates the possibility of the proposed inertial sensing-based system to be served as an efficient tool in providing an accurate and continuous measurement of the spinal kinematics.

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